Fructose

Sugar

Questionable

Details

Definition
A type of sugar that makes up roughly 50% of table sugar and high fructose corn syrup. It's sweeter than glucose, so commonly used in processed foods.
AKAs
Fructose Syrup, Crystalline Fructose
Health Impact
Eating too much added fructose can be harmful to metabolic health and may increase risk of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, heart disease, and type 2 diabetes. May be more dangerous than sucrose or other sugars. Virtually every cell in the body can use glucose for energy. In contrast, only liver cells break down fructose. What happens to fructose inside liver cells is complicated. One of the end products is triglyceride, a form of fat. Uric acid and free radicals are also formed. Excessive added sugar intake is associated with adverse health conditions, including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and inflammatory diseases. Excessive sugar consumption may trigger neuroadaptations in the brain that decouple eating behavior from caloric needs and leads to compulsive overeating. The American Heart Association suggests an added-sugar limit of no more than 24 grams of sugar for most women and no more than 36 grams of sugar for most men each day.

Sources

Adverse metabolic effects of dietary fructose: results from the recent epidemiological, clinical, and mechanistic studies
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23594708/
Obesity and Obesity Related Diseases, Sugar Consumption and Bad Oral Health: A Fatal Epidemic Mixtures
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5536157/
Impact of sugar on the body, brain, and behavior
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29772560/
Added sugars drive coronary heart disease via insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia: a new paradigm
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5708308/

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